3RC is a youth marketing and edutainment company. Our roadshows, videos and publications bring quality educational and marketing objectives together to reach the school-age market.
| AAA School of Advertising|
Together with advertising agencies, design companies, media agencies and marketers as strong partners, the AAA's vision is to set and maintain globally recognised standards for world class education and training of students.
We believe it's essential for brands to break their categories in order to have an impact. Our small team packs a big punch as we make it our daily mission to fight the norm.
| Academy of Digital Arts|
Academy of Digital Arts offers industry-orientated courses taught by dynamic lecturers who work in the industry, ensuring hands-on, quality tertiary education in Graphic Design, Web Design, Game Development and Concept Art, short part-time courses and customised corporate training.
Launched in the heart of Johannesburg in 1971. AdCheck provides a comprehensive advertising monitoring and analysis service to the Media & Advertising agencies, as well as Brand Owners. Assisting clients to enhance their own marketing & advertising strategies.
| Adclick Africa|
Adclick Africa is a performance digital marketing agency that drives results, increases lead generation, enhances your brand awareness and delivers ROI to organisations.
| Advertising Media Forum|
The Advertising Media Forum (AMF) is a collective of media agencies and individuals including media strategists, planners, buyers and consultants through whom 95% of all media expenditure in South Africa is bought.
AFDA is a registered private higher education institution offering accredited degree and higher certificate programmes for the creative economy. AFDA is also a member of CILECT, an international association for over 180 top film and television institutions worldwide.
The companies conduct research surveys and geospatial services to produce information for strategic decision making. Our team of researchers and associates use innovative methods in conducting surveys and developing geospatial datasets.
We create ONE OF A KIND GEOSPATIAL SOLUTIONS. We use geospatial information science to bring information about WHERE to life across industries and in any application. This helps our clients unlock value through better business intelligence.
| Aim Marketing & Communication Consultants|
Aim Marketing is a successful marketing and communications consultancy that offers strategic marketing, brand management, public relations, event management and social media solutions.
| Alefbet Holdings|
Alefbet Holdings is a Global Business Services powerhouse to a blue-chip base of clients operating in South Africa and across the globe, including collections, accounts receivables, education and training and customer service.
| Algoa FM|
Algoa FM is the leading media house connecting people and companies from the Garden Route to the Wild Coast and inland through the Karoo through radio and online channels.
The Advertising Media Association of South Africa's primary focus is the education of people with an interest in the media, marketing and advertising industry.
| APO Group|
Founded in 2007, APO Group is the leading Pan-African communications consultancy and press release distribution service.
| Arora Online|
Arora Online is a Cape Town based digital agency with clients worldwide. We aim to shine from the South, helping your online presence take flight.
| Asante Solutions|
WE ARE DIGITAL Strategists, Creatives, and Data-Organizers. We bring brands to life and keep them relevant. We use technology, data insights, and creativity to make their businesses thrive.
| Ask Afrika|
We believe that research is done for the greater good - through market research, we help companies and brands identify opportunities within their business to enable sustainable growth.
| Association for Communication and Advertising|
The ACA is the official representative body of South Africa's advertising and communications profession.
| ATKASA - Digital Agency|
ATKASA, a leading Digital Marketing Agency, combines progressive, data-driven thinking with in-depth knowledge garnered from many years experience within the digital space. Which translates to measurable results for our clients.
Since 1894, The Bata Group remains one of the world's leading manufacturers and retailers of quality footwear. Bata South Africa represents one of 70 countries worldwide with a Bata presence.
| Bateleur Brand Planning|
Bateleur Brand Planning provides tailor-made strategic research solutions for clients to increase productivity, improve customer experience and gain a competitive advantage by increasing engagement with customers.
Where 370 companies in 18 industries trust Biz Press Office newsrooms to publish corporate content, on Africa's indispensable B2B news media. Enquire about a newsroom like this for your company on email@example.com
| Black Billboard Owners Association|
Black Billboard Owners Association, founded in May 2019 consists of 28 Black Billboard owners who have been vetted and worked together to form a united voice.
| Bloom Marketing|
We offer a 360 degree solution to drive brand growth, from strategy, concept development, to brand building and brand planning, fuelled by consumer insights.
| Bluegrass Digital|
We help businesses transform and succeed in a digital world through insight-led customer experience, innovation and technology built to scale.
| BMi Research|
BMI Research has more than 40 years' experience in the industry across a wide range of methodologies and markets.
We are an independent strategic brand agency that specialises in creative brand design, integrated communications, and digital marketing.
| BOO! Surprising Media Solutions|
BOO! are arguably one of South Africa's fastest growing digital OOH companies - having evolved on trend with substantial investment, to include sophisticated in-house digital content delivery services.
| Brainbow Conscious Creatives|
Brainbow Conscious Creatives is fast-growing global leader in trans-media diversity, equity, inclusion and belonging (DEIB) storytelling.
| Brand Avatar|
Use avatars to create compelling video content: We've taken the hassle out of video production. Our platform helps you create effective content - starring your brand's avatar.
Brandfundi is a boutique brand communications agency, specialising in Public Relations and Marketing. We exist to provide expert brand communications services to companies in the B2B space, helping to build, repair and/or protect brand reputations with integrity and professionalism.
BrandFusion is an integrated business hub founded on the core principles of "collaborative intelligence".The essence of which allows us the agility to combine our own tested business solutions and models.
BrandMapp is a unique South African dataset that uses a mega-sample of more than 30 000 respondents to profile the 12 million adults who live in mid to top-income households earning in excess of R10 000 per month. Now in its eighth year, the BrandMapp survey is a bespoke, independent survey that powers the WhyFive consumer insights consultancy.
A global context company.
| Brave Group|
A global Integrated advertising agency group with a clear ethos: Great Country, Great Economy, Great Brands, Great People.
| Briefly News|
Briefly News is the #1 news and entertainment platform by audience in South Africa. We apply unique advertising formats such as native advertising, rich media and interactive tools.
| Broad Media|
Broad Media is South Africa's leading independent online media company. Broad Media owns South Africa's largest business and technology publications - BusinessTech and MyBroadband, as well as motoring website TopAuto.
| Bullion PR & Communication|
The results of our professional approach to media liaison, communication strategy and eventing speak for themselves.
| Burger King|
Welcome to BURGER KING® South Africa, the HOME OF THE WHOPPER®.
Burnesseo is a digital marketing company that offers SEO consultancy services. We pride ourselves in being an independent and self-sufficient SEO agency, which means we'll never take on any jobs we can't handle.
| Business and Arts South Africa|
Business and Arts South Africa (BASA) is an internationally recognised South African development agency which integrates the Arts into, and contributes to, Corporate's commercial success. With a suite of integrated programmes BASA encourages mutually beneficial partnerships between business and the arts.
| Business Partners Limited|
We're Business Partners Limited, one of the leading business financiers for viable small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the world. We provide business finance ranging from R500 000 to R50 million to established entrepreneurs with a viable formal business.
BusinessTech focusses primarily on business and technology news, but also covers a wide variety of topics that are relevant to the South African public - from health, wealth and lifestyle, to science, politics and general interest.
| Cape Business Centre|
Cape Business Centre is Cape Town's premium business hub. Situated in the prominently positioned new sector of V&A Waterfront Harbour, we offer exclusive virtual/flexi office solutions and conferencing facilities to our members and their partners.
CareerJunction is South Africa's #1 Quality Candidate Provider, with thousands of jobs advertised online daily and over two million registered CareerSeekers.
Careers24 is one of South Africa's leading career portals, listing jobs from a selection of recruiters and attracting hundreds of thousands of job candidates on a monthly basis.
Carry1st is the leading publisher of social games and interactive content across Africa. The company has released such games as Mine Rescue and SpongeBob: Krusty Cook-Off, and launched a proprietary payments and online marketplace to better monetize content in the region. The company is backed by Andreessen Horowitz (a16z), Google, Riot Games, Konvoy Ventures, Avenir, Raine Ventures, Akatsuki, and TTV Capital.
At Cingulate, as a full-service, cross-marketing and advertising agency we offer you a 360° spectrum of agency services from strategy and concept development, to creative design, advertising (traditional and digital), media planning and buying, promotional material and event management.
Clockwork is a Johannesburg and London-based through the line agency focused on building meaningful connections with brands and their audiences. Independent. Integrated. Inspired.
| Content Lounge|
A unique digital-content and communications agency helping you to tell your stories.
| Dangee | Carken|
Dangee | Carken is a contemporary footwear, clothing and accessory wholesaler, and industry-leaders in fashion and style.
| Delta Victor Bravo|
Our purpose is to Build Good Business.
We help ambitious businesses to grow through clear, practical & compelling strategy for customers, markets and people.
We help large B2B clients grow their revenue in Africa by transforming how they engage buyers, grow customers, and enable their marketing and sales teams.
We are champions of meaningful progress, helping our clients to win, keep and grow their best customers. With best-in-class services and solutions in media, CRM, and creative, we operate in over 145 markets worldwide with more than 48,000 dedicated specialists.
We are a strategic communications agency that listens closely, teases out the details, answers the brief, and spreads the word.
| Digital School of Marketing|
The Digital School of Marketing (DSM) offers a unique, user-friendly online learning platform where you can achieve an accredited digital marketing education.
The Direct Marketing Association of Southern Africa (DMASA) is a Section 21 company dedicated to the protection and development of the Interactive and Direct Marketing (IDM) industry. It established itself as an independent body in November 2005.
| dmg events Africa|
dmg events is a leading organiser of face-to-face events and a publisher of trade magazines.
DMX specialises in Influencing your customers' behaviour. We use Audio, Visual Stimulation and Scent to help motivate staff, build brands and enhance an unforgettable experience.
| DNA Brand Architects|
DNA Brand Architects is a one-of-a-kind company that takes your brand where it has never been before, creating unexpected alignments that will shake up your market and blow your mind.
dotGOOD specialise in change-making partnerships, ethical-marketing activations, purpose-driven in-store promotions and inspirational campaigns.
DStv is a video entertainment company owned by MultiChoice.
| DSTV Media Sales|
An award-winning and globally recognised media buying services company with over 20 years of experience. Reach millions of people on our best local & international entertainment and sports shows and experience the high returns of exposure on our DStv and Gotv channels across Africa.
DUKE is an integrated marketing and communications group encompassing DUKE Advertising, Mark1 and Positive Dialogue Communications. Our core function is helping contender brands transform and thrive in challenging times.
| DUO Marketing + Communications|
DUO Marketing + Communications is a specialist PR, digital and marketing agency servicing B2B technology companies in sub-Saharan Africa. DUO incorporates PR with digital to deliver results and ROI for clients.
| East Coast Radio|
East Coast Radio is KwaZulu-Natal's number one; for hit music, for inspiring content, for updated information and for making memories. East Coast Radio is a brand as energetic and vibrant as the people from the East Coast of South Africa.
We're obsessed with challenger brands. They shake things up. They change the rules. They get famous.
And they do it with passion and smarts, not big budgets or easy answers.
We are creators who connect insights, strategy, creative and media through connective campaigns. Unlimited. Uninhibited. Unparalleled.
| Ecentric Payment Systems|
As your one-stop, omnichannel payment services provider, we provide the technical expertise and infrastructure to put you in control of your business's payment processing and reconciliation, today and in the future.
| EDGE Education|
EDGE Education creates engaging learning experiences that empower both students and educators. Because we understand 21st-century teaching and learning, we create holistic academic EdTech solutions that are meaningful and fit for purpose.
eMedia Investments is a South African-based media group with a number of core assets in the television and radio broadcasting sector.
| Engagement Factory, a Blend360 Company|
We are Engagement Factory - a customer engagement agency to the core. We help our clients transform into true customer-centric organisations by combining strategy and insights, fuelled by creativity and technology.
| Enterprises University of Pretoria|
Having played a profound part in the history of South Africa for more than 100 years, the University of Pretoria boasts a lasting legacy that endures through a cluster of innovative and multidisciplinary services rendered through Enterprises University of Pretoria (Pty) Ltd.
| Entravision 365 Digital|
For 21 years the business has represented the largest publishers and platforms in Africa and have helped global brands reach connected consumers and drive business impact.
We're an independent agency that connects business and people focusing on building experiences that not only motivate and change behavior, but have a profound and positive impact on people.
| Euromonitor International|
Euromonitor International is the world's leading independent provider of strategic and tactical market research. We create data and analysis on thousands of products and services around the world.
Everlytic is the leading Cloud Marketing Software solution in South Africa. Every day hundreds of top South African and international companies use our software to send millions of messages to their customers and subscribers. With our bulk and transactional email and SMS engines you can manage all of your digital communications from one central hub. Whether it be newsletters and notifications, to statements and system generated messages, Everlytic is the leader in ensuring top delivery rates.
| Exposure Marketing|
Exposure Marketing, having interacted with over one million parents and parents-to-be and influencing parenting spaces for the past 14 years, is no doubt the expert in creating marketing platforms that not only promotes brands but give parents ultimate brand interaction opportunities.
| False Bay College|
False Bay College offers quality, accredited, vocational, occupational and skills programmes in a range of fields, designed with Industry to meet the skills shortages of South Africa.
| FCB Joburg|
Building timeless and timely brands that people love.
Connect with us - www.fcb.co.za
| Feed That Bird Communication Consultants|
Our work includes creative PR strategies, engaging social media and digital campaigns, legendary events, gorgeous press drops, dynamic influencer promotions, interesting content and solid media relationships.
| Flow Communications|
Flow Communications is one of South Africa's leading independent marketing and communications agencies with a full suite of services, including brand, print, digital, development, social media, PR and media training.
| Fox Networks Group|
Through genre defining channel brands Fox, Fox Sports and National Geographic, Fox Networks Group Europe & Africa is the pan-regional leader for entertainment, factual and sports programming.
| Freelancers Writing Services|
Gwen Watkins - freelance writer, editor, subeditor and author with 35 years international experience in industrial journalism offers her Master NLP Practitioner skills to aid brand communication and native advertising.
FusionDesign offers creative branding solutions both online and offline through all key dimensions of marketing.
| Future Fit Academy|
The Future Fit Academy helps individuals, teams, leaders and organisations to master the skills, knowledge and behaviours to remain relevant and be effective in an ever-changing world of work.
| Gagasi FM|
Gagasi FM is the number one commercial radio station in KwaZulu Natal to reach the black urban and peri-urban black youth.
| G&G Digital|
Using deep insights and a thorough analysis, G&G positions your brand first by weaving storytelling, smart solutions and interactive digital strategy to place your brand where it belongs, above all.
| GfK South Africa|
GfK. Growth from Knowledge.
For over 85 years, we have earned the trust of our clients around the world by solving critical business questions in their decision-making process around consumers, markets, brands and media. Our reliable data and insights, together with advanced AI capabilities, have revolutionized access to real-time actionable recommendations that drive marketing, sales and organisational effectiveness of our clients and partners. That's how we promise and deliver "Growth from Knowledge".
| Ginkgo Agency|
We are a strategic content format agency driven to create communication solutions for those who require a compelling voice within the global landscape.
| GL events South Africa|
GL events South Africa is a worldwide provider of integrated solutions and services for the events industry, operating across the three main event industry segments.
| GO Content Lab|
GO Content Lab ("GO") is an independent full-service communications specialist.
| Gordon Institute of Business Science|
(GIBS) has been built around its intent to significantly improve responsible individual and organisational performance, through high-quality business and management education.
We proudly build brand love for some of South Africa's most loved products and companies by inspiring story-telling in the digital space.
| Grapevine Communications|
Grapevine Communications is a highly successful and niche media relations consultancy.
Images, Motion, Services sums up our complementary raft of services - aimed primarily at professionals in the fields of advertising, design, publishing, production and broadcasting. Our expertise and hands-on experience in these fields have been the foundation of our enterprise for more than two decades.
| Grey Africa|
Grey is the advertising network of Grey Group. The Grey Group ranks among the largest global communications companies and its parent company is WPP (NASDAQ: WPPGY).
| Guerrilla IMC|
Guerrilla IMC specialises in Out-of-Home Media platforms. Over the last 4 years the company has evolved into a media space innovator with a niche and ever growing outdoor holding.
| Hamiltons in Creative Company|
Hamiltons in Creative is a marketing and advertising company based out of Unit 25, Cornerstone Business Park, 24 London Circle, Brackengate Business Park.
| Hasso Plattner d-school Afrika|
The Hasso Plattner d-school Afrika at the University of Cape Town are the leaders of excellence in design-led thinking on the continent. We offer courses in design-led thinking with a focus on solving real-world problems for students, professionals and organisations.
| Havas Johannesburg|
To be the world's best company at creating meaningful connections between people and brands using creativity, media and innovation.
HaveYouHeard is a communications agency immersed in culture to influence it. With 11 years' trading experience and offices in Johannesburg, Cape Town and London, it uncovers unique insights to create innovative ideas that influence the audience by bringing the brands it partners with to the center of culture.
| Heineken South Africa|
Heineken South Africa is an important player in the South African beer and cider market. We have an exciting portfolio of brands, spearheaded by our global flagship brand Heineken®.
Whether we're connecting with one another or connecting our clients with their audience, we believe in our ethos of building human connections. In fact, connecting is so important to us, we've nailed our proverbial colours to the mast by attaching a plus to our logo.
South Africa's #1 online review platform, Hellopeter enables customers to write and read reviews, whereas businesses can use our easy-to-use review platform as their most effective growth strategy.
20 years of helping Africa's biggest brands turn complex customer realities into simple experiences they can't live without. (Formerly Praekelt Consulting)
HKLM is an independent strategic branding and communications company focused on building powerful, sustainable brands in Africa. We are Africa's leading brand agency with representation in South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Ethiopia, Kenya, Botswana and Swaziland.
| HNJ Financial Solutions|
We provide a quality service for our clients by staying abreast of accounting and tax law changes and by taking a proactive interest in the efficient financial management of your business.
Hollard is South Africa's largest privately-owned insurance group and provides provides short-term and life insurance as well as investment products to a diverse customer base, including individual consumers, commercial entities and corporate clients. Our purpose is to enable more people to create and secure a better future.
HOMEMAKERS has for the past two decades developed a unique bouquet of media opportunities enabling advertisers and exhibitors to communicate to discerning homeowners in the major urban areas of South Africa.
| Hook, Line & Sinker|
At Hook, Line & Sinker (HLS) we're a hip & happening integrated communications agency. We help brands to hook their desired audience across paid, earned, owned & shared lines to deliver the ultimate campaign sinker.
| Hoorah Digital|
We digitally transform brands in an ever-changing world. We do this by applying creativity alongside innovative tech & data-led ideas. The result for brands is growth, sales and future certainty.
| Hot 102.7FM|
Hot 102.7FM is Joburg's newest commercial radio station, broadcasting to the greater Johannesburg area and beyond on a powerful 10-kilowatt transmitter. The station's music format of "Old Skool and R&B" is complemented by a line-up of the best presenters, entertaining, amusing and compelling content, including pertinent, relevant news and traffic information.
| Howard Audio|
At Howard Audio we do sound differently. Our composers and engineers combine original music, sound design and final mix in a state of the art studio to create emotionally captivating audio.
| HPCA Care & Support|
The Hospice Palliative Care Association (HPCA) is a registered NPO in South Africa. Founded in 1987, the HPCA is a member organisation for South African hospices. As a national charity, the association champions and supports around 89 member organisations that provide hospice services to approximately 100,000 patients and their families per year. HPCA's member hospices across South Africa care for patients with a variety of life-threatening diseases, predominantly in the comfort of their own homes.
We are a global influencer marketing and data platform that empowers content creators by connecting them with brands.
| Hustle Media|
Hustle Media is a full-service, multi-disciplined communications and digital agency that services all sized clients, from start-ups to large companies. We create compelling, value-added strategies that fast-track growth on- and offline.
| Hybrid Media Consulting|
We are a hybrid team of creative and media consultants with over 25 combined years of experience in the media advertising and publishing industry.
| IAB South Africa|
The IAB South Africa, is an independent, voluntary, non-profit association focused on growing and sustaining a vibrant and profitable digital industry within South Africa.
| icandi CQ|
icandi CQ is a 31% Black Woman Owned, Level 2 B-BBEE strategically driven full-service digital brand, communication and employee experience agency.
| iContact BPO|
iContact BPO is a leading customer service GBS provider serving predominantly international markets, specialising in customer service and CX, outsourced back-office and technical support solutions, sales and accounts receivables.
| imagineNATION Alliance|
imagineNATION Alliance gets you closer to your consumers and market through insightful research. We deliver marketing strategies that build strong, well-defined brands and assist you in putting those strategies into action.
| IMC Conference|
The Nedbank IMC has become Africa's premier integrated marketing conference.
Any marketing person irrespective of role, level or discipline needs to attend this conference.
| IMM Graduate School|
The IMM Graduate School is the distance learning provider of choice and aims to be the centre of excellence for marketing, supply chain and business disciplines in Africa.
| Impact Sourcing Institute of South Africa|
The Impact Sourcing Institute is a fully integrated service focused on upskilling and creating opportunities for society's most vulnerable individuals, specifically for disabled learners from previously disadvantaged backgrounds.
Incubeta is an international team of experts in marketing, technology, data, and creative.
| Indaba Billboards & Media|
Indaba Billboards & Media is a Transit Media Advertising Specialist company that provides brands access to a large and vast commuter audience and Spaza shop shoppers.
| Innovate Durban|
Innovate Durban is a non-profit company set up as a special purpose vehicle to support and drive innovation in the region through our innovation support programmes, capacity building and research.
| Insight Survey|
Insight Survey is a South African B2B market research company with almost 15 years of experience. We specialise in telephone interviews, online surveys, industry analysis and competitive intelligence to help improve or grow your business.
Ipsos is an innovative, entrepreneurial, client-focused organisation, providing research services to clients on a global basis.
| Irvine Partners|
Irvine Partners is a Public Relations & Integrated Marketing Agency with offices in London, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Nairobi, Lagos and Accra.
| Jacaranda FM|
Jacaranda FM broadcasts at 94.2FM from Midrand, Gauteng and is one of the most popular radio stations with a substantial footprint across Mzansi. The station has the only bilingual commercial license in the country; broadcasting regionally in English and Afrikaans across Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and the North West Province.
| JCDecaux Africa|
JCDecaux Africa services the major media agencies, multinationals, and most prominent brands from around the world. Our media planning and strategy are focused on a host of in-depth research and insight tools to maximise our clients' advertising spend and deliver on their campaign objectives.
| Jellyfish South Africa|
With offices in Durban, Johannesburg and 30 other cities around the world, the Jellyfish Group aims to be the first-choice global partner for any brand's digital requirements. As one of a select few globally managed Google Marketing Partners, Jellyfish also offers services in Strategy, Paid Media, Programmatic Display, Social, SEO, Analytics, UX, Training and Creative.
Founded by Jenni Newman in 2003, JNPR has grown to be one of South Africa's leading Reputation Management, PR and Communications Firms.
| Job Crystal|
At #jobcrystal, we always look for the best companies, and the best candidates, which together make the best matches. Better than Tinder
| Joe Public|
We are a 100% independent and proudly South African integrated brand and communication group, with a philosophy grounded in the purpose of growth.
| Just Design|
We are a leading, strategically orientated creative agency, specialising in branding, packaging and innovation. We deliver results-driven solutions to clients both locally and internationally.
Kantar is the world's leading evidence-based insights and consulting company. We have a complete, unique and rounded understanding of how people think, feel and act; globally and locally in over 90 markets. By combining the deep expertise of our people, our data resources and benchmarks, our innovative analytics and technology we help our clients understand people and inspire growth.
| Kaya 959|
From the heart of Gauteng, wherever you may be, Kaya 959 connects with our loyal listeners through a range of digital and on-air platforms.
| Kena Outdoor|
Kena Outdoor is a Billboard Media Owner & Brand Communications Specialist that offers a selection of High Impact Billboards across SA.
| Keys Communications|
Keys Communications specialises in Out Of Home advertising in township and alternative urban spaces.
We're a full-service market research agency know for taking on client's challenges and working alongside them to find solutions. So, when your business needs intelligence that moves the needle, at KLA, we get it!
Levergy is a leading sport and entertainment communications agency based in Johannesburg.
| Lima Bean|
Lima Bean is a leading web development company founded in 2005, with a core focus on designing and building high quality content management systems (CMS) and enterprise e-commerce systems.
| Location Bank|
Securing your footprint. Leveraging your presence. Protecting your reputation.
Machine_ is a creative solutions agency represented across Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban, and is home to over 75 adventurous minds.
| Magnetic Creative|
Global branding agency focused on helping people and brands find their True North.
An Interface Company. We help connect brands with consumers through digital interfaces.
| Mamela Media|
Mass market audience experts with a mixed media offering including static billboards, location-based and other mobile targeting, wall and spaza branding, free-to-consumer Wi-Fi hotspots, and seeding and activations.
| M&C Saatchi Abel|
It is at the heart of everything we do. From creative thinking to creative work. From how we are structured to the systems we use. Brutal Simplicity runs through the culture of every single one of our offices, all around the world.
| Mandisi Ads|
Mandisi Ads, a division of Mandisi Media Group, has launched another successful nation-wide OOH Mall campaign for GCIS, with the objective of informing employers and employees about the inclusion of domestic workers in the COID (Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases) act.
MANGO-OMC a South African PR, communications and digital marketing agency with a network across Africa.
| Mann Made|
We are a brand experience agency, strategically oriented, technically inspired, logistically defined and creatively driven to produce world-class brand experiences that inform and inspire our Client audiences.
| Marin's Southern Africa|
Marin's is an International company, initially established in France and the 'LAMà was designed and patented by Monsieur Francois L'Hotel.
Mark1 is a technology driven and creatively focused Digital Media Business.
| Marketing Achievement Awards|
Celebrating marketing excellence in business.
| Maximizer Software|
Maximizer Software Ltd are the leading provider of proven and affordable customer relationship management for sales, marketing and customer service, and being the No 1 player in the Mobile CRM market.
| Media24 Lifestyle|
Media24 Lifestyle, publishers of South Africa's top lifestyle and magazine brands has aligned its sales and marketing activities with a solution-orientated, go-to-market approach that places client's branded content within a trusted environment.
| MediaHeads 360|
MediaHeads 360 delivers integrated, programming focused and strategic marketing campaigns which include television, radio, content marketing, activations, social media amplification and influencer marketing.
Mediamark is the leading audio and digital solutions company representing world class media brands.
| MegaVision Media|
In-Store Managed Media | Township Branding | Sales Force Automation Technology
Stay on top of billions of online conversations, extract relevant insights, and use them to strategically drive brand perception.
MetroWired is a 100% black-owned, Level 1 BEE company founded in 2007. An ICT enabler delivering digital solutions to B2B clients for over 15 years, our globally expanding wealth of knowledge is future-ready, combining technology and people in an evolving technology market.
Migration is a strategic, innovation, marketing & communications consultancy. We are an award-winning team of thinkers, makers & creators who apply business-minded creative thinking to engage customers and build brands for a deeper human connection.
| Mineworkers Investment Company|
The Mineworkers Investment Company (MIC) is a 100% black owned broad-based investment holding company that was established by the Mineworkers Investment Trust (MIT) to provide ongoing funding for the Trust's social and educational projects.
Mobitainment is a Mobile Marketing technology enabler, translating technology into marketing results... Turning the mobile phone into the SELL phone!
| Momentum Financial Planning|
Momentum Financial Planning's professional financial advisers understand the challenges ordinary South Africans face. Therefore they show up to positively impact every client's journey to success, because they care.
| Mortimer Harvey|
Mortimer Harvey has been building brands, solving problems and making magic happen for the past 28 years. We're a 100% fiercely independent, digitally-integrated, results-driven, multi-channel advertising agency in the heart of Johannesburg focused on creating work that really works.
| Motsepe Advertising|
We are a B2B focused black female-owned advertising agency helping large corporations increase their revenue through specialised digital services.
| Mpact Plastics|
Welcome to Mpact Plastics, a leading producer of rigid plastic packaging and cling film in southern Africa.
Mscsports is a full-service sponsorship agency agency based in Johannesburg, creating IMPACT through creative, innovative & measurable solutions, based in knowledge.
| Mullen Lowe South Africa|
We are a creatively driven integrated marketing communications network with a strong entrepreneurial heritage and challenger mentality. We use creativity to get our clients' brands an unfair share of attention.
| MultiChoice Connected Video|
Connected Video is the internet TV division of MultiChoice Group, responsible for the DStv Now and Showmax streaming services.
| Nahana Communications Group|
Nahana Communications Group is a collective of leading specialist agencies that provide solutions across the marketing ecosystem, engaging with clients early, intelligently and collaboratively, to tackle the business problem, not just the creative task.
| Nalesa Media|
Nalesa Media (Pty) is a 100% women BBBEE Level 1 owned Media Company and Out of Home (OoH) site owner established in 2010 by Naledi and Palesa Mabuse.
Narratiive is your go-to partner for actionable insights and intelligence that simplify and guide better partnerships between brands, marketers, publishers and providers.
| National Flag|
Established in 1982 as a flag-making company, National Flag Branding & Event Solutions now offers anything you may need to create, install and set up branding materials at any event.
| New Media|
We are New Media, the award-winning content agency that combines decades of storytelling expertise with solid, scalable tech solutions. Our mission is to create the emotional connections between brands and audiences that improve customer affinity and retention and engage employees. We generate measurable return on investment and emotion for our clients by telling stories that matter.
| Newzroom Afrika|
Newzroom Afrika is a premier South African 24-hour TV news channel broadcasting in Southern Africa, East and West Africa.
Ninety9cents (99c) is an independent, full-service, integrated advertising & communications agency, with offices based in Cape Town, Johannesburg and Lusaka.
| North-West University (NWU)|
The North-West University (NWU) is one of South Africa's top five universities; that offers superior academic excellence, cutting-edge research and innovation and teaching and learning. It all starts here.
| Northlink College|
Northlink College is a nationally registered Further Education & Training Institution.
| Novus Group|
Novus Group, a South African company, provides innovative and industry leading media monitoring and analysis services to customers across the globe.
| Oak Ventures|
Oak Ventures is an internet company building the future of digital in Africa. We launch and grow tech-enabled companies powered by people.
| Off the Shelf marketing|
Off the Shelf has a proven track record of growing and transforming companies into market leading brands in South Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa.
| OFM Radio|
OFM, is Central South Africa's premier commercial radio station, offering a mix of music, news and entertainment. The station serves the affluent SEM 7+ economically active marketplace with a broadcast footprint across the Free State, Northern Cape, southern Gauteng and North West.
| Ogilvy South Africa|
Ogilvy South Africa offers integrated creative advertising agency and marketing services from offices in Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban.
| OLC Through The Line Communications|
OLC Through The Line Communications is an award winning experiential marketing agency that aims to move businesses and brands forward.
| Old Friends Young Talent (OFyt)|
A unique union of global experience and talent from the streets to create fresh, involving, indigenous South African marketing solutions.
Oliver, creating bespoke onsite creative teams to suit any client. Supported by a network of global creatives. Part of the Inside Ideas Group.
| OnPoint PR|
OnPoint PR is a 21st Century PR Company. We have extensive experience in Public Relations, Media Relations, High Level Marketing, Celebrity Relations, Event Marketing, Media Production, Journalism and Social Media Practice.
| On the Dot|
On the Dot Media Logistics offers a reliable end-to-end media supply chain solution, reaching over 15 000 retail customers, 2500 informal and spaza retailers and delivers to more than 100 000 subscribers nationally. As market leaders in South Africa's print media industry, OtD distributes 95% of magazines and 68% of newspapers. We are proven experts in the development and execution of circulation strategies that increase our customers' success by improving market penetration, positioning and sales.
Openfield is a sponsorship marketing consultancy which focuses on providing strategic expertise on sponsorship matters to key corporates, as well as assisting clients with the implementation of these strategies.
The Optimi group provides offerings in 4 divisions: Home, Workplace, Classroom and College. Together, these divisions service over 200 000 learners per annum.
| Optimize Agency|
Optimize Agency is a strategic sponsorship agency that specialises in sports & entertainment. With experience in the local & international market, we represent the top sport & entertainment clients. Driven by pure passion for what we do, we assist in creating commercial partnerships that take experiences far beyond the event itself whilst driving commercial value.
Ornico provides brand, media and reputational intelligence and research to provide an independent view of brand performance. Gain the competitive edge by making strategic marketing and communications decisions to outsmart the competition.
| Our Salad Mix|
Our Salad Mix is a specialist media agency focused on engaging communities through impactful campaigns. Our focus on community radio station campaigns is supported with social media, interviews, sponsorships, content creation, activations and PR.
| Overall Events & Communication|
We are an event design & communications company based in Port Elizabeth that proudly serves the Eastern Cape. We create event and communication platforms and activities that help connect organisations with their various stakeholders. We offer a range of services that can be customized to suit your communication objectives.
Payflex is a revolutionary online payment product that enables online shoppers to buy now and pay later, at 0% interest. No debt. No fees. No catch.
We are the world's learning company and we are on a mission to help people make progress in their lives through learning.
Pendoring is the platform that embraces country and industry to promote, unify and celebrate the richness of South Africa's creative content in all its indigenous languages.
Established in the year 2000, Penquin is an independent 360-degree results-driven advertising agency. We offer unique solutions that connect people and make them feel part of something bigger. Experiences are the soul of our creative thinking, they inspire us to tell stories that stir emotions, instill belief, and help build long-lasting, authentic relationships with your customers.
| Perfect Word|
Perfect Word was established to offer the market a full, turnkey communications, writing and marketing service that is both professional and affordable, driven by passionate experts.
Prepaid24 is an online seller of prepaid electricity & vouchers. Since our founding in 2009, we've attained a #1 national HelloPeter ranking for expert service & personal customer care.
| Primedia Broadcasting|
Primedia Broadcasting is the home to premium radio stations in Gauteng and the Western Cape and specialises in omnichannel converged solutions that deliver results.
| Primedia Outdoor|
Primedia Outdoor is a national outdoor advertising media specialist. Part of the Out-of- Home division of Primedia (Pty) Ltd, Primedia Outdoor focuses primarily on the marketing and selling of outdoor advertising signage.
Established in 1957, the Public Relations Institute of Southern Africa (PRISA) represents professionals in public relations and communication management throughout the southern African region and has registered practitioners in Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho, Swaziland and South Africa.
| Publisher's Toolbox|
Publisher's Toolbox is an innovative digital product and platform business that provides news, publishing, brand, broadcasting and sports organisations with the tools to operate like modern media powerhouses.
Pyrotec is a proudly South African company with its focus aimed firmly on the future. Its five brands - Pyrotec PackMark, Pyrotec PackMedia, Pyrotec PackLink, Pyrotec PackWorx and Pyrotec Finance - make this an industry-leading company that specialises in a comprehensive range of coding and labelling equipment, on-pack informational and promotional devices, merchandising solutions, development and manufacturing of automated systems for the packaging and manufacturing industry and making finance options available to customers. Pyrotec's software offering ensures product integrity, optimises coding activities, and helps secure centralised data management systems and label tracking systems.
| Rand Show|
Rand Show is South Africa's largest consumer event on the annual calendar. A fun and diverse event that has something for the whole family.
| Realm Digital|
Realm Digital is a leading global digital strategy and technology partner helping companies solve problems, unlock value and achieve their vision. We design, build and develop innovative digital business solutions with client experience at the core of everything we do. Our team is made up of experienced individuals who are passionate about technology, digital transformation, and creating intelligent digital solutions.
| Red & Yellow|
The Red & Yellow School offers bespoke training solutions to meet your specified needs or the needs of your company. Equip yourself today.
| Regent Business School|
Regent Business School was established to satisfy the demand for management education in southern Africa.
| Rocket Creative Design & Display|
Rocket Creative Design & Display offer innovative, trend setting and anti-norm visual display products. These are conceived and originated by fusing our functional enginuity, creativity and inventive spirit with our own very individual approach to fabrication whilst following our ‘ Innovation, Simplified ' creative ethos.
Rocketseed is the first-choice email signature management software for both marketers and IT professionals across the globe, compatible with Office 365, Gsuite & Exchange.
Rogerwilco, 2021 FM AdFocus Digital Agency of the Year, is an independently owned level 2 B-BBEE full service digital marketing agency with a presence in Cape Town, Johannesburg and London.
| Rosebank College|
The IIE Rosebank College, an educational brand of The Independent Institute of Education (The IIE) gives you access to affordable, quality education that makes you employable. Accredited IIE Degrees, Diplomas and Higher Certificates are offered at Rosebank College.
| RX Africa|
RX is in the business of building businesses for individuals, communities and organisations. We elevate the power of face-to-face events by combining data and digital products to help customers learn about markets, source products and complete transactions at over 400 events in 22 countries across 43 industry sectors. RX is passionate about making a positive impact on society and is fully committed to creating an inclusive work environment for all our people. RX is part of RELX, a global provider of information-based analytics and decision tools for professional and business customers. www.rxglobal.com
| SA Business School|
SA Business School is a SETA-accredited training provider focused on management development, learnerships and bespoke training development and delivery. All training courses are delivered by distinguished faculty/subject-matter experts.
SAFREA is the Southern African Freelancers Association. We provide advocacy, support and resources to freelancers in the media and communications industry, and provide tools, training and networking to freelance professionals.
Sappi works closely with customer, both direct and indirect, in over 100 countries to provide them with the relevant and sustainable paper, paper-pulp and dissolving wood pulp products and related services and innovations.
| SA Shares|
SA Shares is an independent brokerage and news platform operating in South Africa.
| Scan Display|
Scan Display is a leader in the African exhibition, events, branding and retail display industries, specialising in shopfitting, brand activations, retail displays, exhibition stands and exhibition and event infrastructure.
| Shapiro Shaik Defries and Associates|
Shapiro Shaik Defries & Associates (SSDA) is a world-class collections and recoveries business serving financial services and telecommunication providers, retailers, utilities, government institutions and healthcare providers.
| SHAREit Group|
SHAREit Group is a global internet technology company that exists to democratize digital access and empower businesses to grow. The diversified suite of applications has been installed by more than 2.4 billion users worldwide, including the core app SHAREit.
| Sherbet Youth Agency|
A strategically-driven, through-the-line ad agency focussed on connecting brands with the youth. We're specialists in advertising and marketing solutions that make meaningful connections with South Africa's youth!
Showmax is internet TV that lets you stream or download the best series, movies, kids' shows and documentaries. Watch Showmax now on your phone, tablet, laptop or TV.
We deliver beautiful Agency Management technology that will help your firm win the best accounts, deliver the greatest projects, delight your clients and be more profitable. Workbook by Deltek. Looks good. Lifts heavy.
Simply offers great value life, disability and funeral cover combos, with a quick online sign-up at Simply.co.za. For you, your domestic worker and your business employees. No bloods, instant cover, all online.
SLiMS is a one-stop solution for logistics, merchandising and marketing. Offering businesses of all sizes an integrated logistics solution for getting consumer-packaged goods to retail outlets nationwide.
| Smart Media|
Smart Media is a solution-driven in-store innovator. We inspire confidence with retailers, strategically partnering with clients in the moment that matters, entrenching brand loyalty with shoppers by providing 360° solutions.
| SME South Africa|
SME South Africa is a one-stop-shop for business owners to access advice, business tools and resources they need..
| Smile 90.4FM|
Smile 90.4FM is a bilingual radio station that offers entertainment, information and inspiration to the upper LSM Metropolitan audience of Cape Town.
| Smoke Customer Intelligence|
We help you create better customer experiences by gathering and understanding Voice of the Customer data across your business.
Snapplify is at the forefront of edtech solutions, having developed original technology solutions to common problems experienced across the education ecosystem.
| Social Places|
Social Places is a MarTech company that specialises in location-based marketing and reputation management for multi-location and/or franchised brands.
| So Interactive|
We are an independent digital creative agency that was established in 2007. We focus on creating brand experiences that engage people online and offline. Through innovation, experience and knowledge we have the right skills to deliver impact for brands and business.
| Sol Plaatje Institute for Media Leadership, Rhodes University|
Africa's pioneering Media Management School.
| Spark Media|
Spark Media, a division of Caxton & CTP Publishers and Printers Ltd is an advertising and media-solutions, sales company. We represent Caxton-owned local newspapers, as well as selected independent publications in Sub-Saharan Africa. We offer solutions that focus on location-targeted content.
| Sprout Performance Partners|
A leading Performance Media Agency and Google Marketing Platform Certified Partner
Stone provides excellent strategy counsel, engagement consulting and communication services. We support our clients' business goals on their journey to success and prosperity.
| Student Village|
Student Village have been youth specialists for 20+ years. We connect brands with youth and youth with brands. Our services include youth insights, digital & brand activations and bursary services.
From design, to our creative innovation, and expert execution, Studio[K]irmack is your creative production partner. All things digital including E-Comm photography, video and engaging digital content.
| Sum of 21 Academy|
Sum of 21 Academy is a creative incubator agency, intended to address transformation within the creative industry. We drive transformation through Skills Development, and our Innovative and Experiential Training Methodology allows us to Inspire, Nurture and Enable the future talent of the creative industry.
Superunion designs brands that matter - to customers, clients and society - through purpose and experience-led solutions that combine in-depth branding knowledge, digital design expertise, and technical delivery.
| SWITCH ENERGY DRINK|
#SwitchEnergy contains essential vitamins and provides a boost of energy with a crisp refreshing taste.
Talkwalker is the #1 consumer intelligence company and is dedicated to helping brands close the gap between brand and consumer.
We develop business-changing, culture-defining and award winning ideas for brands. Ranked in the top 3 regional networks in Africa and consistently in the top 10 global agencies.
| Techsys Digital|
Raised by computers, our team of experts specialize in all things digital, integrating new insights, strategies and digital technologies into clients' projects to achieve world class results.
TenacityPR is a generator of content for ideas, angles, pitches and storytelling. We see content differently, and through our expertise in multi-platform PR, we have worked across the board for well known brands from financial to arts and entertainment.
| TFG (The Foschini Group)|
TFG (The Foschini Group)'s vision is to be the leading fashion lifestyle retailer in Africa whilst growing our international footprint. TFG houses our 31 leading retail brands with over 4 300 outlets.
| The Children’s Hospital Trust|
Advancing child healthcare through sustainable funding for the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and other paediatric facilities in the Western Cape. Our vision is to give all children access to high quality healthcare.
| The Citizen|
The Citizen is a daily national newspaper, distributed Monday to Friday, with its core circulation in Gauteng (82%). Super Saturday Citizen appears on Saturdays.
| The Hardy Boys|
We're a group of idea generators, strategic thinkers and passionate problem solvers who, since 1994, have been helping brands find their voice.
| The Media Krate|
The Media Krate specialises in Unusual Outdoor Media Solutions that are sure-fire to turn heads and hold a hostage audience, focusing on South African Townships, and selected presence in Urban and Affluent Suburbs.
| The Music In Africa Foundation|
The Music In Africa Foundation (MIAF) has a key focus to establish scalable research systems for the African music sector to maximise existing and new income stream. Music In Africa Foundation, is a non-profit organization formed on 27 July 2013.
| The Odd Number|
The Odd Number is an Advertising Agency co-founded by Sibusiso Sitole and Xola Nouse. We are a 100% black-owned advertising agency that has been in full-time operation since 01 April 2015, led by a management team with over 25 years experience in the corporate sector and advertising industry.
| The Publicity Workshop|
The Publicity Workshop is a highly respected South African entertainment, consumer and lifestyle publicity, brand activation and eventing consultancy.
| Thirst Bar Services|
Thirst has fostered a reputation for providing excellent service from a platform of market leading equipment. By continually offering new, unique and innovative locally and internationally inspired products, like the Thirst Bartenders Marker, and using mobile bar units that are state of the art.
Thotbox is a media sales company that specialises in community radio airtime sales by integrating all regional radio stations to form a national grid.
| TLC Marketing Worldwide|
TLC Marketing Worldwide is a global marketing agency. We are a unique fusion of experienced marketers and innovative deal makers whose skills combine to create, manage and deliver magical marketing campaigns to help our clients achieve their business goals.
| TMI Collective|
TMI combines passionate individuals and brands in a digital environment that inspires innovation. TMI aligns expertise with client strengths, to collaboratively craft solutions that are geared to achieving clients' goals.
| Topco Media|
Topco Media is one of South Africa's leading business-to-business media houses, producing high profile, relevant conferences and awards. Our conferences include Africa Tech Week, Standard Bank Top Women, Top Empowerment, Future of HR, National Business Awards and Future of Sustainability. We also produce authoritative and informative business and investment publications such as Top 500, Top Empowerment, Nelson Mandela 100 years to name a few.
We supply a network of Sub-Distributors, System Integrators, Value Added Resellers & dealers with barcode scanners, mobile computers, label, and POS printers, Line and Serial Impact Printers, as well as consumables.
| TQ Group|
A technologically-led modern day communications agency delivering end-to-end strategic communications solutions that drive measurable business growth for our clients.
| Tractor Outdoor|
Tractor Outdoor was founded in 2001 by international industry veterans and is managed by a team who has a comprehensive grounding in the outdoor media industry.
Our agency supports your brand, with technology and talent, straight to your bottom line.
Trialogue is one of only a few consultancies in South Africa that focus exclusively on corporate responsibility issues. Over 17 years of experience puts us at the forefront of new developments in sustainability and corporate social investment (CSI).
TSIBA provides future-focused business education to ambitious individuals and emerging businesses. Its offerings include a Business Degree, Postgraduate Diploma in Small Enterprise Consulting, vocational certificates, short skills programmes and tailored short learning interventions. Boost your career today!
| UCT Graduate School of Business|
The University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business (GSB) is recognised as one of the best business schools in the world. Its innovative approaches to teaching and learning and commitment to relevance and social impact set it apart from most.
| Urban Brew Studios|
Urban Brew Studios is a leading facilities provider and a landmark of creativity for entertaining and informative content. We deliver compelling content that captivates audiences, brewing a picture perfect blend of creativity and technology from vision to viewer.
| V5 Digital|
We solve business challenges by providing digital marketing strategy and tech solutions to help our customers and clients reach and excite their customers and consumers.
Valiant (previously known as BRANDTRUTH) is a digital-first agency which helps brands brave enough to step up, to create digital-first marketing solutions that stand out. The agency is proudly 51% black female owned, independent and Level 2 BBBEE.
VDX.tv is a global advertising technology company that is transforming the way brands connect with relevant audiences in today's converging video landscape.
| Vega School|
Vega is a brand of The Independent Institute of Education (The IIE). The IIE is South Africa's largest private higher education institution which operates across 20 campuses. The IIE is international accredited by The British Accreditation Council.
We're experts in community panels and smart digital research, delivering inspiring insight; vividly brought to life.
| Vicinity Media|
Vicinity Media is Africa's first true Premium location based ad network.
One global family, positively provoking growth for our clients and our people. #GrowFearless Bound by our Purchase Journey obsession we help clients translate audience behaviors and insights into smart decisions today, for a prosperous tomorrow.
We are an independent South African Full-Service Brand, Communications & Digital Marketing Agency. We originate experiences that transform brands, grow businesses, and create connections #creativitytakescourage
Webillism is an out of this world web design company based in Johannesburg South Africa. For us, web design is more than a job it's a passion and adventure. We love to design beautiful websites backed up with the latest functionality and technology.
| Wetpaint - The Little BIG Agency!|
Bold, fearless and intentional! We are brand mechanics that work across all mediums developing cutting-edge work that cultivates a brands' full potential by driving differentiation, generating growth and conquering the competition. We Are The Little Big Agency
Whizzoh connects you to experienced, certified professionals in your area, from plumbers and builders to electricians and locksmiths.
| Wits Language School|
Wits Language School is one of the leading language schools in South Africa. With over 20 years of experience in the world of languages, our school offers a wide range of language courses and services. Wits Language School is evolving through face-to-face and blended learning with full-time and part-time options.
| Wits Plus|
If life and your career is a full-time job and you can't study full-time but you need to learn more to earn more or advance yourself then Wits Plus is definitely for you.
| Woodford Group|
The Woodford Group is a progressive, grassroots company that maintains a standard for excellence while consistently expanding horizons through technology, customer experiences, service level quality and social and environmental responsibility.
| Worx Group|
The Worx Group is a marketing solutions company that combines design, production, digital marketing, activations and events to explore opportunities for our clients, staff and partners.
| Wunderman Thompson|
Wunderman Thompson South Africa is born out of the country's oldest digital, social media, technology and advertising agencies. Strong strategic and creative approaches backed by data insights drive service delivery across four centres of excellence: Advertising, Digital, Technology & Consulting.
| YehBaby Marketing Creatives|
We specialise in connecting our clients with their customers online. As experts in brand positioning, content and online marketing, we can turn your brand into an online marketing asset.
| YFM 99.2|
YFM has the youngest commercial audience in South Africa. It's become known as the capital of youth culture. As the most influential proponents of local South African music, YFM is a 75% music, 25% talk station. The sound of the station is defined by a well-curated collection of the best local and international hits. YFM is a balanced platform supporting not only established artists but new, up and coming acts. YFM proudly supports the South African music industry, boasting over 50% in local content. With a multi-channel approach, the station has an audience of 2.5 million across, radio and digital platforms. If it's hot, you're most likely to hear it on the authority on all things trendy, YFM 99.2.