According to the report, the cost of a data breach has risen 12% over the past five years and now costs $3.92m on average globally. These rising expenses are representative of the multi-year financial impact of breaches, increased regulation and the complex process of resolving criminal attacks.
The financial consequences of a data breach can be particularly acute for small and mid-size businesses. In the study, companies with less than 500 employees suffered losses of more than $2.5m on average – a potentially crippling amount for small businesses, which typically earn $50m or less in annual revenue.
A total of 21 South Africa companies participated in this year’s study. Based on four years of historical data, R43.3m is the average total cost of a data breach, which represents an increase of 12.16% from the previous year.
R2,200 is the per capita cost per lost or stolen record, which represents an increase of 9.35% from the prior year. The root cause for 52% of data breaches was malicious or criminal attacks. The mean time to identify the data breach increased from 150 to 175 days, while the meantime to contain the data breach increased from 40 to 56 days.
For the first time this year, the report also examined the longtail financial impact of a data breach, finding that the effects of a data breach are felt for years. While an average of 67% of data breach costs was realised within the first year after a breach, 22% accrued in the second year and another 11% accumulated more than two years after a breach globally. The longtail costs were higher in the second and third years for organisations in highly-regulated environments, such as healthcare, financial services, energy and pharmaceuticals.
“Cybercrime represents big money for cybercriminals, and unfortunately that equates to significant losses for businesses,” said Wendi Whitmore, global lead for IBM X-Force Incident Response and Intelligence Services.
“With organisations facing the loss or theft of over 11.7 billion records in the past 3 years alone, companies need to be aware of the full financial impact that a data breach can have on their bottom line – and focus on how they can reduce these costs.”
Sponsored by IBM Security and conducted by the Ponemon Institute, the annual Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth interviews with more than 500 companies around the world that suffered a breach over the past year. The analysis takes into account hundreds of cost factors including legal, regulatory and technical activities to loss of brand equity, customers, and employee productivity.
Some of the top findings from this year’s report globally include:
The study found that data breaches which originated from a malicious cyberattack were not only the most common root cause of a breach but also the most expensive.
Malicious data breaches cost companies in the study $4.45 million on average – over $1 million more than those originating from accidental causes such as system glitch and human error. These breaches are a growing threat, as the percentage of malicious or criminal attacks as the root cause of data breaches in the report crept up from 42% to 51% over the past six years of the study (a 21% increase).
That said, inadvertent breaches from human error and system glitches were still the cause for nearly half (49%) of the data breaches in the report, costing companies $3.50 and $3.24 million respectively. These breaches from human and machine error represent an opportunity for improvement, which can be addressed through security awareness training for staff, technology investments, and testing services to identify accidental breaches early on.
One particular area of concern is the misconfiguration of cloud servers, which contributed to the exposure of 990 million records in 2018, representing 43% of all lost records for the year according to the IBM X-Force Threat Intelligence Index.
For the past 14 years, the Ponemon Institute has examined factors that increase or reduce the cost of a breach and has found that the speed and efficiency at which a company responds to a breach has a significant impact on the overall cost.
This year’s report found that the average lifecycle of a breach was 279 days with companies taking 206 days to first identify a breach after it occurs and an additional 73 days to contain the breach. However, companies in the study who were able to detect and contain a breach in less than 200 days spent $1.2 million less on the total cost of a breach.
A focus on incident response can help reduce the time it takes companies to respond, and the study found that these measures also had a direct correlation with overall costs. Having an incident response team in place and extensive testing of incident response plans were two of the top three greatest cost-saving factors examined in the study. Companies that had both of these measures in place had $1.23 million less total costs for a data breach on average than those that had neither measure in place ($3.51 million vs. $4.74 million).
Additional factors impacting the cost of a breach for companies in the study included:
The study also examined the cost of data breaches in different industries and regions, finding that data breaches in the U.S. are vastly more expensive – costing $8.19 million, or more than double the average for worldwide companies in the study. Costs for data breaches in the US increased by 130% over the past 14 years of the study; up from $3.54 million in the 2006 study.
Additionally, organisations in the Middle East reported the highest average number of breached records with nearly 40,000 breached records per incident (compared to the global average of around 25,500.)
For the 9th year in a row, healthcare organisations in the study had the highest costs associated with data breaches. The average cost of a breach in the healthcare industry was nearly $6.5 million - over 60% higher than the cross-industry average.
Explore the full 2019 Cost of a Data Breach Report.